The incident happened in Fenxi, Shanxi province, on 24 August.
The six-year-old boy went out to play and was found several hours later by his parents with his eyes removed.
The little boy is now recovering in hospital. Police have offered a reward of 100,000 yuan ($16,340, £10,500) for information linked to the case.
The boy's parents are said to be farmers. His mother said her son told them he was walking outside when a woman attacked him, state media reported.
Police found the little boy's eyeballs at the scene. Initial local reports said the corneas were missing, potentially pointing towards organ trafficking.
Police now say, however, that the corneas were not missing.
"We are sparing no efforts to solve this case," a police officer named Liu told the Associated Press news agency.